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The Components of Physical Fitness


Cardio respiratory:  Also called aerobic fitness or cardiovascular fitness.

Cardio respiratory exercise increases the capacity of the heart, Lungs, and blood to carrying vessels to deliver oxygen.


Muscle Endurance: Refers to a muscle’s ability to perform repeated contractions or hold static contractions.


Muscle Strength: Refers to the amount of force a muscle can exert in a single all out effort or one repetition.


Flexibility: Refers to a joints range of mobility.  Flexibility is specific to the joint type.



Health-Related Fitness ~


Health related physical activities focuses on the components of fitness to promote lifelong exercise adherence. Health related fitness programs aim to prevent injury and enhance quality and quantity of life.





·         Principle of Overload: When providing work for the body that is slightly beyond its normal capacity. it responds by becoming  fitter and more. able to comp1ete that work with less effort. Increasing the exercise overload on the system in manageable increments over time will elevate the fitness level with less chance of overuse or chronic injury.


·         Specificity of Training: The body adapts to a specific mode of training with

         specific physiological adaptations.


·         Monitoring Your Response to Exercise: The body’s danger signs during

exercise, related to illness and over exertion Include:


·         chest pain

·         unusual shortness of breath

·         nausea

·         dizziness

·         lightheadedness






Heart Rates

Heart rate is very important in determining aerobic exercise intensity and over all fitness.  The following heart rate measurements are used in making these evaluations

·         Resting Heart Rate (HRRest)        Heart Rate in the morning at rest averaged over 3 days.

·         Maximum Heart Rate  (HRMax)    Heart Rate at all out effort estiMated by subtracting age from 220.

·         Training Heart Rate (THR): Training heart rate refers to a percentage of maximum heart rate achieved during exercise that reflects safe and effective intensity parameters for a particular individual. The 1998 ACSM position stand recommends the ranges of intensity of 55/65—90% of maximum heart rate for training individuals wishing to achieve aerobic fitness. Intensities below 55% can, however, promote health related benefits.

·         Heart Rate Reserve (HRR): Heart Rate Reserve is the difference between maximum and resting heart rate.

·         Recovery Heart Rate: The post exercise heart rate will decrease or recover as the body’s cardio respiratory functions return to homeostasis. The amount of time it takes for the heart rate to recover to pre-exercise levels will depend on many variables including the fitness level of the client, environmental conditions, intensity, mode of exercise and hydration.-


Aerobic Exercise

Training Effects of Aerobic Exercise  (Increases, Decreases)
·         Decreases The heart rate taken before rising in the morning.

·         Individuals engaging in cardiovascular exercise usually have lower resting heart rate.

·         Increases  Stroke Volume: The amount of blood pumped in one beat or stroke of the heart. A fitter individual can pump more blood per beat and therefore has a higher C stroke volume and lower resting heart rate.

·         Decreases Resting Blood Pressure: The force exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. Normal blood pressure is said to be 120/80 mm Hg (measured in millimeters of mercury with a sphygmomanometer).

·         Increases Cardiac Output During Exercise: The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute. A fitter individual has a higher stroke volume during exercise.

·         Increases Alveoli: Microscopic air sacs that facilitate absorption of oxygen into the bloodstream

·         Increases Hemoglobin (Hb): A protein in red blood cells that takes up oxygen in the bloodstream

·         Increases Mitochondria: Cell organelle involved in aerobic metabolism

·         Increases Oxidative Enzymes: Enzymes involved in aerobic metabolism

·         Increases Capillary Density: Number of capillaries per square millimeter area of muscle tissue

·         Decreases Body Fat: Used as a fuel in aerobic metabolism

·         Increases Bone Density: Several modes of cardiovascular exercises stress the skeletal system which may promote denser and stronger bones.

·         Increases Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR): Minimal energy required to sustain the body’s vital functions.

·         Decreases Stress and depression: Exercise may help reduce stress and depression.

·         Decreases Constipation; Improves digestion—lack of constipation

·         Increases  Improves productivity and self image


·         Heart Effects

·         Increases Heart muscle grows stronger

·         Decreases risk of artherosclorosis due to production of HDL cholesterol

·         Increases Total blood volume increases


Every American adult should accumulate over the course of the day, 30 minutes or more of moderate intensity activity 3 to 6 days of the week.


·         Frequency: 3—6 days per week

·         Intensity: 55/65—90% max heart rate (HRm).  The lower intensity values, i.e., 55—64% (HRm).  are most applicable to individuals who are minimally fit.

·         Duration: 20—60 minutes of continuous or intermittent (minimum of 10 minute bouts accumulated throughout the day) aerobic activity.

·         Progression: The rate of progression is broken down into three phases and is relative to the initial fitness level, health status, age and goals of the client.


Initial Conditioning Phase



·         55/65% max heart rate


·         3 times per week


·         20—30 minutes continuous or 10 minute intermittent bouts done throughout the day.

·         Period—4—6 plus weeks

Improvement Conditioning Phase



·         65—90% max heart rate

·         3—5 times per week
·         20—60 minutes
·         period—small increases every 2—3 weeks for 4—5 months
Maintenance Conditioning Phase

Review program and reassess goals


Resistance Training

Resistance Training includes the following benefits:

There are a few basic ingredients to the successful resistance training program. The program that a person chooses to implement should be compatible with a pre-established goals and abilities. All programs must begin with

·         a general warm-up,

·         stretching,

·         light sets

Resistance Training should include basic exercises for the major muscle groups to be repeated a minimum of twice weekly. Progression and variety are also important considerations to prevent loss of interest and insure continued improvement.


It is important to assess your goals, fitness level and limitations as well as equipment availability to adapt a resistance training program to fit your individual needs and situation.


·         ACSM recommendations for muscle strength and endurance states that resistance training should be an integral part of an adult fitness program and of sufficient intensity to enhance strength, muscle endurance, and maintain fat-free mass (FFM). Resistance Training should be progressive in nature, individualized and provide a stimulus to all the major muscle groups.


·            Progress resistance training refers to the need to increase the amount of stress to the muscles as they increase in strength. This can be done by increasing the weight to be lifted and/or the mount of sets and repetitions.


a. A minimum of 8-10 exercises that condition the major muscle groups. (arms, shoulders, chest, abdomen, back, hips, and legs) is recommended.

b. A minimum of I set of 8—12 reps to near fatigue should be completed by most participants; however, for older and/or more frail  persons, 10—15 may be more appropriate.

c. Resistance training should be performed 2—3 days per week with one to three days of recovery time in between work out sessions.


Type Of Reps

All Reps are not the same. To achieve the best results from resistance training equipment, there are several basic rules that can be followed;

·         Mental awareness of Muscle Movement

During each repetition, there should be a mental awareness of the contraction and return to it resting length of the muscle or muscles that are involved in each exercise.

·         Controlled Repetitions

Controlled Reps which refers to the speed of moment during the:

·                     Positives movement (concentric), the initial pushing or pulling movement that shortens a muscle

·                     Negative movement (Eccentric), the returning movement after a completed positive movement that allows the muscle to return to its resting lengths

·                     Complete range of motion is the range or distance of a movement achievable by the joint and muscle being exercised. 


(Note The negative count should always be greater than the positive count and the differences in numbers should increase as conditioning improves)



Initial Conditioning Phase

·      During positives, the movements should be done in a 3 to 5 counts.


·      During negatives, the movements should be done in a 4 to 6 counts.


Improvement Conditioning Phase

·      During positives, the movements should be done in a 3 to 6 counts.


·      During negatives, the movements should be done in a 7 to 10 counts.


Maintenance Conditioning Phase

·      During positives, the movements should be done in a 5 to 7 counts.


·      During negatives, the movements should be done in a 10 to 12 counts.




Home Exercise Program


Isotonic Exercise

Isotonic Exercise is exercise in which isotonic muscular contraction is used to strengthen muscles and improve joint mobility. Physiology Of or involving muscular contraction in which the muscle remains under relatively constant tension while its length changes.


Isometric Exercise

Isometric Exercise or a system of exercises in which isometric muscular contraction is used to strengthen and tone muscles, performed by the exertion of effort against resistance, usually of a stationary object.   Physiology Of or involving muscular contraction against resistance in which the length of the muscle remains the same